Table 1

Clinical characteristics

Sex (female %)46.1 (44.3–48.0)
Body mass index (kg/m2)23.43±0.08
Systolic BP (mm Hg)114.68±0.37
Diastolic BP (mm Hg)75.09±0.25
Fasting glucose(mg/dL)96.84±0.56
Fasting insulin (µIU/mL)7.99±0.16
HbA1c (%, DCCT)5.56±0.03
hs-CRP (mg/L)1.14±0.05
Total cholesterol (mg/dL)192.51±0.83
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL)51.65±0.29
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL)115.79±0.73
TG/HDL ratio3.98±0.17
AST (IU/L)22.49±0.30
ALT (IU/L)22.58±0.61
Smoking, % Never52.9 (50.6–55.1)
  Ex-smoker20.3 (18.6–22.0)
  Current25.3 (22.5–28.4)
Alcohol (%) <1/month30.3 (27.1–33.9)
  1/month–1/week38.1 (34.8–41.5)
 >2/week23.6 (20.9–26.6)
Exercise (%)52.9 (50.7–55.1)
Total energy intake (kcal)2251±28
Carbohydrate intake (%)60.90±0.33
Fat intake (%)20.21±0.24
  • Data are presented with survey means±SE for continuous variables and weighted percentages(95% CI) for categorical variables. Exercise(%) is defined as the percentage of people doing aerobic exercise based on whether a subject reports doing aerobic exercise more than 2.5 hours/week of moderate intensity or 1.25 hours/week of high intensity. Carbohydrate and fat intake (%) is shown as a percentage of total energy intake.

  • ALT, alanine aminotransferase; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; BP, blood pressure; DCCT, Diabetes Control and Complications Trial units; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; hs-CRP, high-sensitivity C reactive protein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; TG, triglycerides.