Table 1

Baseline characteristics

Variable HIIT (n=13) CON (n=15)
Gender (women/men)4/93/12
Age (years)52.5±7.449.9±9.7
Body weight (kg)121±27118±22
BMI (kg/m2)38.5±7.037.7±4.8
Fat mass (%)39.5±9.238.1±7.3
Skeletal muscle mass (%)27.9±3.728.1±3.6
Resting heart rate (beats/min)86±1384±13
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)133±16138±15
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)80±1384±10
Sleep apnoea duration (months)51±4988±58
CPAP users (n)1112
Atrial fibrillation (n)20
Hypertension (n)54
Diabetes type 1 or 2 (n/n)1/11/2

AHI (events/hour)31.4±21.7 *50.3±25.5
Epworth score10.0±3.6 *5.9±4.3
Osaturation (%)92.4±1.691.6±1.6
Odesaturation events (n/hour)36.9±18.655.8±28.6

Insulin (pmol/L)120.4±64.5149.6±127.4
Cholesterol (mmol/L)5.2±1.05.3±1.2
LDL (mmol/L)3.3±0.93.3±1.1
HDL (mmol/L)1.2±0.21.1±0.3
Triglycerides (mmol/L)1.53±0.651.94±1.05
Leptin (pmol/L)1747±14191657±1261
HbA1c (%)5.8±0.35.9±0.6
CRP (mg/L)6.3±2.18.3±7.2
TSH (mU/L)1.76±0.722.21±0.85
T4 (pmol/L)15.7±2.215.2±2.0
Hb (g/dL)14.5±1.014.9±1.5
HCT (%)43±343±4

FVC (L)4.31±0.874.38±0.77
Predicted FVC (%)92.4±12.491.3±15.3
FEV1 (L)3.36±0.573.39±0.58
Predicted FEV1 (%)88.3±10.086.6±14.3
IVC (L)4.22±0.934.34±0.79
Predicted IVC (%)96.1±18.691.4±16.2
TLCO (mmol/min//kPa)10.4±1.69.8±2.1
Predicted TLCO (%)102.9±13.0495.3±15.7
KCO (mmol/min/kPa)1.78±0.171.63±0.24
Predicted KCO (%)119±12109±16
  • Description of subjects at study baseline, including demographics, sleep evaluation, blood and clinical biomarkers and pulmonary function.

  • *Significant group difference at baseline (p≤0.05).

  • AHI, apnoea–hypopnea index; BMI, body mass index; CON, control group; CPAP, continuous positive airway pressure; CRP, C reactive protein; FEV1,  forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FVC, forced vital capacity;  Hb, haemoglobin; HCT, haematocrit; HBA1C, glycolysed haemoglobin A1c; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; HITT, high-intensity interval training; IVC, inspiratory vital capacity; KCO, transfer coefficient; LDL, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; O2, oxygen; TSH, thyroid-stimulating hormone; T4, thyroxin; TLCO, single-breath transfer factor of the lung/pulmonary diffusion capacity.