Table 1

Participant characteristics, n=441

9 Years12 Years
Male (n, %)21047.621047.6
Female (n, %)23152.423152.4
Body mass index (BMI) (mean, SD)17.92.820.53.8
BMI z-score* (mean, SD)
Healthy weight (n, %)29767.727462.7
Overweight† (n, %)8018.28218.8
Obese† (n, %)6214.18118.5
Stage of puberty‡2.30.6
  • *z-Scores calculated relative to age-specific UK 1990 reference data.28

  • †Cut-points for population monitoring of overweight were used to categorise the children into healthy weight (<85th centile), overweight (≥85th <95th centile) or obese (≥95th centile). Overweight and obese categories were combined for this analysis.

  • ‡Continuous scale from 1 to 4; prepubertal to postpubertal.