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Can foot angle influence the risk of injury to the lower limb joints during a field hockey hit?
  1. Frances E Feeley1,
  2. Graham P Arnold1,
  3. Sadiq Nasir1,
  4. Weijie W Wang1,
  5. Rami Abboud2
  1. 1Institute of Motion Analysis & Research (IMAR), Orthopaedic & Trauma Surgery, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK
  2. 2Faculty of Engineering, University of Balamand, Al Koura Campus, Balamand, Lebanon
  1. Correspondence to Professor Rami Abboud; rjabboud{at}; Dr Graham P Arnold; g.p.arnold{at}


Objectives The lower limb is widely reported as the most commonly injured body part in the field of hockey, more specifically lateral ankle sprains and internal knee injury. Despite this, there remains limited understanding of how the biomechanics of the sport could be adapted to minimise injury. The aim of this study was to propose a foot position during the hockey hit that results in the smallest joint angles and moments, from a total of four different foot positions: 0°, 30°, 60° and 90°, which may correlate to injury risk.

Method Eighteen players from the local University Ladies Hockey Club participated in this study. Each player was required to perform a hit with their lead foot in four different positions: 0°, 30°, 60° and 90°, where 0° was a lead foot position perpendicular to the direction of motion of the ball. Angles and moments were calculated with the Vicon system using force plates and motion analysis.

Results Significant differences (p<0.05) were found between the angles and moments of the four foot positions tested, indicating that foot angle can influence the degree of angulation, and moments, produced in the lower limb joints during the hockey hit.

Conclusion There is a relationship between lead foot position and the angles and moments produced in the lower limb joints during the hockey hit, and this may correlate with injury risk.

  • hockey
  • biomechanics
  • ankle
  • knee
  • injury

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  • Contributors FEF: planning the study, conducting the study, analysing the data, reporting the study, generating the draft write-up—responsible for overall content as guarantor. GPA: data collection for study and Vicon markers repeatability. SN: data collection for study and Vicon software reliability. WWW: statistical analysis of data. RA: reporting the study, revising the original and revision manuscript critically for intellectual content, submitting the study—responsible for overall content as guarantor.

  • Funding The study was funded internally by the department.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Ethics approval The study was approved by the Medical School Research Ethics Committee—ID: SMED REC 069/17.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement No data are available.

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