Table 1

Physical activity modes and definitions used for grouping and analysis in this review

Exercise modeFurther definition for this review
WalkingIncluding treadmill
CyclingEither outdoor or stationary, and peddle or hand/crack
Progressive resistance training (PRT)Lifting of an external resistance, performed across multiple sets (3–5) of a low number of repetitions (<20)
Functional/closed kinetic chain exercisesLifting, controlling and moving one's own body weight, during movement's replicating real-life movements, eg, stepping forwards or up on a step, excluding walking only
PRT using functional/closed kinetic chain exercisesFunctional exercises, with the addition of external weight; either held in hands or as weighted vest
Sport/games-basedIncluding group or individual game or play based activities
Spirometry exerciseExternally resisted inspiratory muscle training
Nintendo WiiUsing ‘off-the-shelf’ games
MotivationAny study providing psychological or emotional feedback, or music to enhance motivation during a physical activity
EducationEducation to enhance participation levels
Complex programmeAn intervention the broadly reflects a combination of any above interventions, that cannot be defined as primarily one or another for any reason. This includes counselling to determine individualised activities. The combination is defined for each intervention in included study tables