Table 1

DCS influencing factors checklist

1. Sports activity1.1. Game rules (contact/no contact)
1.2. Equipment (goals, projectiles, apparel, implements and surfaces)
1.3. Player exposure
1.4. Gender propensity (mixed/single sex)
1.5. Team/individual
1.6. Popularity (no. of participants, frequency of play)
1.7. Attitude/behaviour
1.8. Tactics
1.9. Temperature and humidity
2. Sports incident2.1. Contact type: human (with or without personal protective equipment) versus:
  • Human (with or without personal protective equipment)

  • Projectile

  • Surface

  • Obstacles (goals, nets, posts, boards. etc)

  • Implements (bats, sticks, etc)

2.2. Deliberate (active) or accidental (passive) contact
2.3. Two or more (striker & target(s))
2.4. Constraints (striker & target): free, driven and planted
2.5. Impact location—segment detail
3. Loading factors3.1. Relative incoming velocity (target and striker)
3.2. Relative surface alignment (target and striker)
3.3. Specific surface geometry (target and striker)
3.4. Surface properties (target and striker); external friction, lubrication
3.5. Effective inertia of striker (mass, moment of inertia and distribution)
3.6. Striker stiffness (inertial resistance)
3.7. Degrees of freedom/constraints (pivot friction, moments, secondary inertia)
4. Load transfer factors4.1. Effective inertia of target (mass, moment of inertia and mass distribution)
4.2. Anthropometrics
4.3. Material characteristics:
  • Type (bone, muscle etc.)

  • State (tensed/relaxed/flexed/extended)

  • Mechanical properties (immediate surface and affected structures)

4.4. Spatial geometry (physical location of material)
4.5. Target degrees of freedom (at each of the joints; rotational and translational degrees)
4.6. Internal friction and lubrication
4.7. Ground reaction forces
5. Response phenomena5.1. Impact duration
5.2. Tissue displacement
5.3. Segment velocity (target and striker)
5.4. Joint displacement
5.5. Acceleration
5.6. Shock
5.7. Vibration
5.8. Physiological factors (eg, muscle tension, tendon reflex, localised pressure change)
5.9. Temperature change
6. Overload thresholds exceeded?6.1. Compressive stresses and strains
6.2. Tensile stresses and strains
6.3. Shear stresses and strains
6.4. Cyclic fatigue
6.5. Subject specific property variation (eg, age, physical condition, pre-existing damage or deformity)
6.6. Multiaxial stress (resulting in yield or failure of tissue)
7. Injury7.1. Muscle contusions
7.2. Bone fractures
7.3. Joint dislocations
7.4. Lacerations (compression, tearing of body tissue by blunt impact)
7.5. Blistering (friction, rubbing)
7.6. Incisions (cutting by sharp implement)
7.7. Puncture (penetrating with sharp implement)
7.8. Avulsions (forceful tearing of body tissue)
7.9. Sprains/strains
7.10. Nerve entrapment
7.11. Organ failure
7.12. Concussion and soft tissue head injuries
  • DCS, deterministic contextual sequential.